Starch - a typical hydrophilic colloid is composed of two polysaccharides: amylose, amylopectin. Amylose molecule is a long straight chain consisting entirely of glucose residues connected by glycosidic linkages between the first and fourth carbon atoms.
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The molecule has the form of amylopectin branched chains. In addition to the polysaccharides in starch contains minerals and high-molecular fatty acids. Minerals range from 0.2 to 0.7%, it is mostly phosphoric acid. High-fatty acids are palmitic, stearic, etc. Acids and amylolytic enzymes hydrolyze starch to form maltose, maltotriozy, glucose and other sugars. As an intermediate product formed during the hydrolysis of starch polysaccharides of varying molecular weight, called dextrin.
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There are four groups of dextrin: amilodekstriny, soluble in 25% ethyl alcohol, but it precipitated from solution with ethyl alcohol concentration in a solution of 40%, stained with a solution of iodine in violet-blue; eritrodekstriny, soluble in 55% ethyl alcohol, but it precipitated from solution with ethyl alcohol concentration in a solution of 65%, stained with a solution of iodine in the red-brown color; ahrodekstriny, soluble in 70% ethyl alcohol, not stained with iodine; maltodextrins are not precipitated with ethanol and stained with iodine. Inulin - a high-carbohydrate, contained in some plants (roots, chicory, Jerusalem artichoke tubers, etc.). The hydrolysis of its acid and the enzyme inulinase produced fruktofuranoza and a small number of glucopyranose. Of the plants of inulin, fructose can be obtained. Cellulose (fiber) - the main substance, part of the cell walls of plants. Each molecule of cellulose is a long unbranched chain of glucose residues. Cellulose is insoluble in water and only swells in it.
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When boiled with mineral acids (sulfuric, hydrochloric), cellulose is converted into glucose, Hemicellulose (polukletchatka) - a group of structural heteropolysaccharides endosperm cell walls and membranes of grain, which are insoluble in water and soluble in weak alkaline solutions. Hemicellulose contained in the grains of barley, as well as in corn cobs, straw, bran, etc. The composition of hemicelluloses and pentosans are geksozany. Hemicellulose hydrolysis acids more easily than cellulose produced by the hydrolysis pentose (arabinose, xylose) and hexose (mannose, galactose, etc.).